Republic of El Salvador

The Territory

Two ranges of mountains cross the country from east to west. The first of them is formed by the Mita Comeyaco, Chalatenango and Cabañas mountains to the north and the Apaneca and Tacuba mountains to the west; the second runs parallel to the Pacific Ocean and marks the transition from the highlands to the coastline plains.

There is a plateau between the two ( 600 m altitude) that crosses the Lempa valley and many minor depressions.

There is a 16 to 24 km plain between the mountains and the Pacific. Even though the mountains are not very high, there are several volcanoes, some of them such as Izalco, 16 km northeast of Sonsonate, are still active.

Rivers, lakes, coastline
There are approximately 360 rivers. The only navigable river, only for some boats, is the Lempa river ( 300 km ). Other important rivers are: Paz, Grande de Sonsonate, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, Zumpul, Goascorán (which is one-third of the border with Honduras and flows into the Fonseca Gulf ), Tamulasco and Goajoyo.

The most important lakes are Guija (in the border with Guatemala), Ilopango (72 km2), 442 m above sea level and Coatepeque (42 km²)m, very famous for its natural beauty.

Mild throughout most of the year, with temperatures ranging between 19ºC and 32ºC. The rainy season is from May to October. The weather is warm and humid in the coast and lowlands; and cool in the highlands.